CHARACTERISTICS OF WINE PRODUCTION IN VENEZUELA
The experimental production of wines in Venezuela began in the era of 1983 when the first studies started in arid zones of Zulia and Lara states. There are currently 330 hectares of vineyards, of which 100 are in Lara and 230 in Zulia. There are two types of wineries, the first that uses fresh grapes for wine production and sangrias, such as Bodegas Pomar and the Institute of Grapes in Lara and the Viticulture Center in Zulia, and other wineries that use all or part of imported concentrated grape juice for production of wine and sangria. The annual production of still and sparkling wines from fresh grapes is about 912,000 bottles, of which 840,000 are produced by Bodegas Pomar, while the annual production of wine and aerated from concentrated must, is about 7 million bottles. Moreover, the total production of sangria nationwide is about 35 million liters. Varieties are cultivated such as Tempranillo, Syrah, Petit Verdot, Chenin Blanc, Macabeu, Malvoisie, Sauvignon, Muscat D' Petit Grain, Moscato Bianco and Malvasía Istriana. The rootstocks used are 'Criolla Negra' (Vitis vinifera × V. caribaea DC), 1103 Paulsen, 110 Richter and '99 Richter. Cycles of production have variable length from 114 and 133 days in Lara, performing two harvests per year, and between 95 and 110 days in Zulia, producing three per year. The average annual rainfall varies between 500 and 730 mm. Daily temperatures range between 20 and 32°C in Lara and between 25 and 33°C in Zulia, the soils vary from deep sandy and clay, both low fertility and calcareous origin, to the sandy of low fertile and deep. Wines are white and red, young and aging as well as sparkling by the Méthode Traditionnelle. The production is distributed exclusively in the national market.
Vargas, G. (2011). CHARACTERISTICS OF WINE PRODUCTION IN VENEZUELA. Acta Hortic. 910, 103-111
Vitis vinifera, Vitis caribaea D.C., 'Criolla Negra', tropical conditions, ethephon, hydrogen cyanamide, gibberellic acid, Lara State, Zulia State