I.D. Castro , O. Pinto-Carnide, J.M. Ortiz , J.P. Martín
Chloroplast genome (cpDNA) analysis is an excellent tool in phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies. Investigations about grapevine domestication are being carried out based on chloroplast microsatellites (cpSSR) variation in samples of Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris and sativa from the whole area of the species’ distribution (from the Iberian Peninsula to the Middle East). Polymorphisms detected suggest the existence of at least two important origins for the cultivated germplasm, one in the Near East and another in the western Mediterranean region. The objective of this study was to assess the diversity in the chloroplast genome of a group of Portuguese cultivars, with the purpose to know their regional genetic patterns as well as to infer their putative origin. A total of 38 cultivars, representative of cultivated grapevine material in the north of Portugal, and three international cultivars (outgroups) were studied using three cpSSR loci and analysing several fragments of the large single copy (LSC) region of the cpDNA by cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS) or PCR-RFLP methodology. The three cpSSR loci were polymorphic, two different alleles were found in each locus. Allele variants of the three loci combined in a total of three different haplotypes. The most frequent haplotype (70.7%) was the same previously reported as the most frequent in the Iberian Peninsula and western Europe. One of the haplotypes was unique in ‘Rabigato’. This haplotype was previously proposed to be an ancestral haplotype. Inference about the progenitors of the cultivar ‘Touriga Franca’ is done. This cultivar could be the progeny of ‘Touriga Nacional’ and ‘Marufo’. The cpSSR analysis revealed that ‘Touriga Nacional’ could have been the male progenitor. Ten fragments of the LSC region from Vitis vinifera cpDNA were amplified and digested with two restriction enzymes (HinfI and TaqI), according to CAPS methodology. No polymorphisms were found in the 41 cultivars, but this analysis will be expanded to the rest of the LSC region.
Castro , I.D., Pinto-Carnide, O., Ortiz , J.M. and Martín, J.P. (2011). CHLOROPLAST DNA DIVERSITY IN PORTUGUESE GRAPE CULTIVARS. Acta Hortic. 918, 701-708
DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2011.918.90
Vitis vinifera L., cpSSR, PCR-RFLP, chloroplast variability, grapevine domestication, autochthonous Portuguese grapevines

Acta Horticulturae