REGIONAL STUDIES OF PATHOGENS DEVELOPMENT ON STORED TOMATO CULTIVARS IN THE MIDDLE EAST (EGYPT, JORDAN, PALESTINE AND ISRAEL)
Knowing the type of decay-causing agents of tomato helps in identifying and adapting appropriate pre- and post-harvest treatment, leading to maintaining good quality, minimizing post-harvest losses and improving the competitiveness of products. Within the framework of the Middle East-Regional Agricultural Cooperation Program involving Denmark, Egypt, Jordan, Palestinian Authority and Israel, four research teams have investigated the susceptibility of different tomato cultivars to natural and artificial infections under two storage conditions, 12°C (cold storage) and 20°C (room temperature). The samples were picked at different ripening stages (mature-green, breaker, pink, and fully ripe) and inspected at different time intervals. Results showed: i) susceptibility of tomato to pathogen infection and rate of disease severity was directly related to fruit ripening stage; ii) infection and disease severity rate caused by Botrytis cinerea were more than those caused by Alternaria alternate; iii) artificially inoculated tomato with Rhizopus stolonifer showed total loss at all maturity stages; iv) although Cladosporium spp. and Penicillium spp. were identified on harvested fruits, those fungi did not cause any rot development during storage, as they are known to be saprophytic-non pathogenic fungi. However, Botrytis and Alternaria were found to be the main decay causing agents in harvested tomatoe; v) Rhizopus stolinifer and Aspergillus niger were found to cause decay of ripe red tomato, especially when fruit were stored at room tempera-ture; vi) in all countries, regardless of the cultivars and the growing conditions, the main decay causing agents were Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternate, which infected the fruits by quiescent infections. The larger implications of the findings were that to reduce or eliminate development of both decay causing organisms during storage and marketing and chemical/pesticide use in the fields, an early detection of latent infection needs to be achieved during the growing season.
Qaryouti, M., Nijdawi, O., Al-Abed, A., Naser, Z., Abdel Wali, M., Musalam, A., Rawashdeh, M., Arabiat , SH., Shnikat, E., Mohammad , A., Basheer-Salimia, R., Allam, H., Farag , S., Zakaria, S., Fallik, E., Prigojin, I., Alkalai-Tuvia, SH., Perzelan , Y. and Aharon, Z. (2012). REGIONAL STUDIES OF PATHOGENS DEVELOPMENT ON STORED TOMATO CULTIVARS IN THE MIDDLE EAST (EGYPT, JORDAN, PALESTINE AND ISRAEL). Acta Hortic. 934, 363-370
artificial inoculation, maturity stage, storage conditions, tomato pathogens