INTEGRATED APPROACHES FOR ANNUAL ARTICHOKE PRODUCTION IN SOUTHWEST TEXAS
Cultural strategies on globe artichoke [Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. scolymus (L.) Hayek] have been evaluated for growth, physiology and yield during the last three years in the Wintergarden of southwest Texas. Studies were conducted on transplant stress tolerance to improve stand establishment; irrigation and nitrogen application rates to enhance yield and nutritional quality of heads; gibberellic acid and plasticulture to induce earliness, improve yield and extend the harvest season; and cultivar screening for adaptability to the region. Post-transplanting heat (35/20°C vs. 25/10°C, day/night temperatures) or drought (30% vs. 60% water holding capacity) stress alone or in combination, significantly reduced shoot and root growth of artichoke seedlings. Abscisic acid (ABA) applied at 1000 mgL-1 enhanced drought tolerance of transplants, response that was associated with the maintenance of shoot water status via stomatal closure. Compared to ABA other film-forming antitranspirants were not effective for stress mitigation. Field experiments under three irrigation (50, 75 and 100% ETc) and four N (0-180 kgha-1) rates revealed that irrigation was more effective than N application rates to optimize artichoke yield. Yield reduction by 50% ETc was associated with a decrease in head number and weight. The highest yield was obtained with 100% ETc and 120 kgha-1 N. In terms of cultivars, total marketable yields were highest for Green Globe Improved, Concerto, Madrigal, Imperial Star and Lorca, particularly under black plastic mulch (11% higher than bare-soil). By integrating results from these experiments we have established commercial crop guidelines for annual artichoke production which are currently being introduced to growers in the region.
Leskovar, D.I., Shinohara, T., Agehara, S. and Patil, B. (2012). INTEGRATED APPROACHES FOR ANNUAL ARTICHOKE PRODUCTION IN SOUTHWEST TEXAS . Acta Hortic. 942, 235-238
deficit irrigation, nitrogen, gibberellic acid, transplant stress, phenolic compounds