EMERGING VIRAL AND OTHER DISEASES OF PROCESSING TOMATOES: BIOLOGY, DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT
Processing tomatoes are affected by numerous plant diseases, many of which can cause substantial economic losses. Because processing tomatoes are produced worldwide and in a wide diversity of environments, the diseases and their relative importance vary from region to region. Human activity has played a key role in the emergence of these diseases, ranging from the exposure of tomato, a New World crop, to new pathogens, many of which found tomato to be a highly susceptible new host, to the global spread of tomato disease-causing pathogens. Some of these pathogens have subsequently been spread, long-distance, in association with seeds or transplants, whereas others (mostly viruses) have spread in association with their insect vectors. The global emergence of whiteflies and thrips, has facilitated the emergence and spread of previously known as well as new viruses vectored by these insects. Expansion of processing tomato production into new areas, together with changes in cultural practices, has led to re-emergence of diseases, including fungal and bacterial foliar blights and soil borne diseases. Furthermore, because these pathogens can change in terms of their relative importance, distribution and genetic make-up, the diseases they cause represent a constant threat to worldwide processing tomato production. Fortunately, considerable progress has been made in identifying, understanding and managing these diseases. New detection technologies, fueled by advances in molecular biology, allow for rapid and specific identification of pathogens/diseases. Electronic communication provides opportunities for long-distance diagnostics. Improved insight into pathogen biology allows for development of management strategies based on multiple strategies, including tomato varieties with resistance to many important pathogens/diseases. Together, this allows for the development of integrated pest management (IPM) approaches that can be tailored for diseases in specific environments/regions. Examples of successful IPM packages for the viral diseases tomato yellow leaf curl and tomato spotted wilt are presented.
Gilbertson, R.L. and Batuman, O. (2013). EMERGING VIRAL AND OTHER DISEASES OF PROCESSING TOMATOES: BIOLOGY, DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT. Acta Hortic. 971, 35-48
Solanum lycopersicum, emerging diseases, plant disease diagnosis, plant pathogens, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), integrated pest management (IPM)