THE UTILIZATION OF ROOTSTOCKS IN INDIAN JUJUBE
Indian jujube is an ideal fruit for cultivation in the arid and semi-arid zones of Northern India because it has the least irrigation requirements in the summer months of May and June when it sheds its leaves and enters a period of dormancy. The important jujube growing states in India are Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal and Assam. Standardization of rootstock is a very important aspect of jujube growing, which need special attention and care. The propagation of jujube by budding is most successful. The shield or T-budding method is employed because it is easier to perform. Seeds of Katha jujube (Z. mauritiana Lamk.) are generally used for raising of rootstock. These seeds are easily available from the wild growing trees and possess the qualities of a good rootstock. The germination of jujube seed is quite a difficult process on account of the stony nature of the endocarp, which contains the seeds. Seeds are generally dipped into a salt solution of 17% concentration for 24 hours before sowing. Evaluation of rootstocks for jujube has been done at Punjab Agricultural University and it was recommended that the jujube plants should be budded on Z. mauritiana (Elongated Dehradun) for higher fruit yield and planting should be done at 7.5 × 7.5 m distance. Jujube plants raised on semi-vigorous rootstock Z. mauritiana (Coimbatore) can profitably be planted at a closer spacing of 6 × 6 m. Thus about 50% more plants can be accommodated with over 20% increase in yield of equally good quality fruit. Seeds of Mallah jujube (Z. numularia) can also be used as a rootstock. The seedlings of Mallah are slow growing and become buddable after a longer period than the seedlings of Katha jujube. The commercial cultivar Umran can be successfully raised on Z. numularia from Punjab and Rajasthan under alkaline soil conditions. Systematic rootstock trials in various jujube growing regions of the world need to be conducted. The important Ziziphus species which should be included in the rootstock trials are Z. mauritiana, Z. jujuba, Z. mistol, Z. oenoplia, Z. numularia, Z. zoaziro, Z. xylopyrus, Z. spina-christi, Z. valgaris, Z. rugosa, Z. lotus, Z. sativa, Z. truncata, Z. incurva, Z. glabrata, Z. mucronata, Z. abyssinica, Z. fumiculosa and Z. oxyphylla.
Bal, J.S. (2013). THE UTILIZATION OF ROOTSTOCKS IN INDIAN JUJUBE. Acta Hortic. 993, 47-50
Indian jujube, rootstock, semi-vigorous, T-budding