NOVEL ADVANCES AND PERSPECTIVES TO THE USE OF PLANT SAPONINS AS PESTICIDES

I. Chaieb
Saponins are a class of secondary plant metabolites with diverse biological properties. These molecules have an interesting pesticide potential and this work is a review of principal advances realized in this domain. The best studied pesticide activity is the insecticidal activity, these substances cause several forms of toxicity against harmful insects (anti-feedancy, disturbance of the moults, growth regulation, etc.); the insecticides activity of saponins comes from their interaction with alimentary cholesterol causing a disturbance of the synthesis of moulting hormone. The fungi-toxic activity was also relatively well studied; saponins were demonstrated to interact with membrane sterols, disturbing the balance of the membrane exchanges, destruction of the structure of the membrane and consequently a mortality of the mycelium. The molluscicidal and nematicidal activities of certain saponins were discussed in several works. Many constraints slow down the use of saponins as bio-pesticides: saponins have a strong toxicity regard to the mammals. Moreover, partial or total degradation of sugars associated with the aglycone always increases a loss of molecule activity. The hydrophilic nature of saponins limits their penetration through the lipophilic insect cuticle. The structural complexity of saponins is a barrier against identification of the active molecules and especially against the synthesis of these substances. Saponins are molecules with interesting and diversified pesticidal activities but it is too early to propose pesticidal solutions based on these substances.
Chaieb, I. (2013). NOVEL ADVANCES AND PERSPECTIVES TO THE USE OF PLANT SAPONINS AS PESTICIDES. Acta Hortic. 997, 177-184
DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2013.997.21
https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2013.997.21
saponins, pesticide, insecticide, molluscicide, fungicide, nematicide
English

Acta Horticulturae