The bulb morphological traits of Croatian garlic (Allium sativum L.) genetic resources
Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is an important crop in the diet of many countries. It has a characteristic alliaceous smell and taste and has a beneficial impact on human health. Wide variability is known in garlic morphological traits. The source of traits of interest for breeding is based on an evaluation of the diversity of plant genetic resources. To date, the morphology of Croatian garlic has not been understood. The aim of this research was to analyse 77 garlic accessions using bulb qualitative and quantitative morphological traits, to understand the relationship among traits, and to define possible groups of accessions in the collection. Garlic was planted in autumn using a completely random design and harvested in mid-June. Ten bulbs per accession were sampled and analysed two months after harvest using ECPGR descriptor for Alliums. Skin colour of the clove and bulb structure type had a strong association with all other qualitative traits studied: shape of mature dry bulb, shape of mature garlic bulb, outer skin colour of compound bulb, shape of the compound bulb in horizontal section and the ability to flower. A weak relationship was found between the shape of the mature garlic bulb, with shape of the compound bulb in horizontal section and the ability to flower. The bulb weight, diameter and height were positively correlated. A low negative correlation was found between number of cloves and diameter, height and weight. Based on morphological traits, garlic accessions were classified into two distinct morphotypes. Garlic accessions from the first group had yellow and light brown cloves, irregular structure, elliptic shape and no ability to flower. Garlic from the second group had violet cloves, regular structure, circular shape and an ability to flower. These results present a detailed report on Croatian garlic morphology, which may contribute to the effective preservation and management of the collection.
Iva Bažon Zidarić won the ISHS Young Minds Award for the best oral presentation at the VIII International Symposium on Edible Alliums, which was held virtually in Croatia in May 2022.
Iva Bažon Zidarić, OPG Vina Bažon - Bažon Wines, Marcani 130b, 52403 Gračišće (Istria), Croatia, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The article is available in Chronica Horticulturae