The Quiet Rescue of America's Forgotten Fruit
One man is responsible for roughly half of the country's stone fruit collection.
The epicenter of America's tech industry was once orchards as far as the eye can see. California's Silicon Valley, as it happens, used to be known as the Valley of Heart's Delight, a slogan that often accompanied illustrations of sunshine and fruit trees.
Michael Coates is an engineer and PhD candidate at the University of South Australia whose research is looking at strategies to take almond harvesting into the 21st century. In a traditional almond harvest, as the fruit ripens on the tree, the shell containing the kernel is exposed as the hull splits and dries back. The fruit is then shaken from the tree, where it dries to an equilibrium moisture content on the ground.
Castanea sativa, the European chestnut, is an important forest species of great economic value. However, it is declining due to its susceptibility to Phytophthora cinnamomi, while C. crenata, the Japanese chestnut, demonstrates resistance to this aggressive pathogen that causes root rot, also known as ink disease. To face this problem, in 2006 a breeding program was initiated in Portugal based on the introgression of resistance genes from the Asian species into the European chestnut, through controlled crosses.
My name is Orsolya Borsai and I am a PhD student at the University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. My major fields of research are plant genetics and breeding as a feasible option for tolerance to abiotic stresses, and micropropagation techniques to generate new plant cultivars. Aronia melanocarpa (Michx) Elliott is a culinary, medicinal and cosmetic plant species, native to North America, also cultivated more and more in Europe.
Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a tropical fruit crop originating from Central America and Mexico. Its remarkable productivity, early bearing and nutritional value are popular attributes justifying production in many areas; the crop ranks third place among the most produced tropical crops in the world, after banana and mango. Spain is the first producer of tropical fruit in Europe, leading the production for bananas, mangoes, avocados, cherimoyas and loquat.
I am Branimir Njezic, a PhD student at the University of Banja Luka, Faculty of Agriculture, Bosnia and Herzegovina. I am in the last year of my PhD thesis supervised by Prof. Dr. Ralf-Udo Ehlers. I work on biological control of the most important pests of plum (plum sawflies, Hoplocampa flava and H. minuta) using entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN). The only currently available measure for farmers to control plum sawflies are synthetic insecticides. They are applied at the time of petal fall, when beneficial organisms are present in the orchards.
The 'Khzandeh' system is one of the traditional systems for grape training in Iran. In this system, the roots of the plants are laid down in a trough (depth: 80 cm and width: 100 cm), and the trunk is placed on a small mound formed after digging the streams. The amount of water used in this system is considerable, and the time of the last irrigation and harvesting in this method is more important than for other systems.
Climate change has become a major challenge in modern agriculture because of its negative impact on both quantity and quality of the crops. Rising atmospheric temperatures and CO2 concentrations appear to have direct and indirect effects on the nutritional quality of fruits and vegetables. However, most studies evaluated the effect of either temperature or CO2 concentration, but not their combination. Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) is well known for its high phytochemical content and proven health benefits.
Check out the new issue of eJHS online at https://www.pubhort.org/ejhs/ (Volume 83, issue 1, February 2018) - including the following articles:
The latest newsletter of the ISHS Section on Tropical and Subtropical Fruits is available for download from the Section home page: https://www.ishs.org/tropical-and-subtropical-fruits
Check out the new issue of Fruits - The International Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Horticulture online at https://www.pubhort.org/fruits/ (Volume 73, issue 1, January/February 2018).
The International Horticultural Congress (IHC), organized every four year since 1856, is the biggest scientific event in the field of horticulture. The next International Horticultural Congress (IHC2018) will be held in Istanbul, Turkey August 12-16, 2018 , organized by the International Society for Horticultural Science (ISHS), hosted by Turkish Society for Horticultural Science and The Turkish Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock.
First ISHS Summer School on Pre- and Postharvest Physiology of Temperate Fruit Crops
22 July - 4 August 2018; University of Hohenheim and the Centre of Competence for Fruit Growing, Lake Constance (Germany)
FruitCRISP – Fruit Crop Responses to Innovations for Sustainable Production
Check out the new issue of eJHS online at https://www.pubhort.org/ejhs/ (Volume 82, issue 6, December 2017) - Thematic Issue: Vegetable - including the following articles:
Chronica Horticulturae Volume 57 Number 4 (December 2017) is available for download - proceed to https://www.ishs.org/chronica-horticulturae/vol57nr4 and login with your ISHS membership account credentials.
Topics in this number include
News & Views from the Board
The rose rosette task force compiled the rose virome in 2016 and twenty-four viruses have been reported worldwide to infect roses. These viruses can reduce yields of garden roses because they cause damage to roses even before visible symptoms develop. Therefore, early viral infections may not be diagnosed until symptoms break out or fully develop in the plant. Common and frequently used detection of viral diseases affecting roses are serologically based, such as ELISA, or alternatively, lateral flow devices.
Chestnut (genus Castanea, family Fagaceae) has spread to different regions of the northern hemisphere, over many centuries. Since ancient times, 13 species of the genus have had an important place in human nutrition. Major areas where these species are concentrated include: China, Korea, Japan, Turkey, southern Europe and North America. Castanea sativa, which also contains Anatolian chestnut, is a native species of the Mediterranean basin.
In the field of plant physiological ecology, people are usually interested in how leaf carbon and water dynamics determine whole plant performance, including growth and reproduction, with stems being the organ responsible for water transport and mechanical support. In many plants from arid and semi-arid ecosystems in both temperate and tropical regions, green photosynthetic stems have evolved in many species, possibly as a response to water shortage at least during one period of the year, yet the possible advantages that green stems confer to such species remain unclear.
Currently, the majority of extensive green roofs are planted solely with species from the genus Sedum. These plants are extremely drought tolerant but are not as efficient at providing ecosystem services as other potential green roof vegetation. For example, taller species with wider leaves are more efficient at reducing storm water runoff and substrate temperatures than the short succulent Sedum species. However, this does not necessarily mean that Sedum should be excluded from green roof vegetation.
Lilium (commonly known as lily) is one of the most important bulbous flower genera belonging to the family Liliaceae, and is native to temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. It is used for cut flower production, pot plant production and landscaping purposes. Each year the interest in lilies increases around the world. Presently they hold the fourth position among cut flowers in world flower trade. Pollen is a unique plant tissue that potentially can be used and manipulated to the advantage of the geneticist, breeder, physiologist and germplasm curator.
Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) is a temperate fruit species cultivated in more than 60 countries. In recent years, an important renewal of plant material is taking place worldwide. Traditionally, pollination requirements have not been considered important because most cultivars in Europe were self-compatible.
Jens Mincke obtained his MSc in Chemistry and Bioprocess Technology at Ghent University in 2013 and obtained a second MSc in Biomedical Engineering at Ghent University & Vrije Universiteit Brussel in 2015. Jens is currently conducting PhD research under the supervision of Prof. Dr. ir. Kathy Steppe (research group: Laboratory of Plant Ecology) and Prof. Dr. Stefaan Vandenberghe (research group: Medical Imaging and Signal Processing) at Ghent University.
Check out the new issue of Fruits - The International Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Horticulture online at http://www.pubhort.org/fruits/ (Volume 72, issue 6, November/December 2017).
International Society for Horticultural Science (ISHS) and Horti ASIA sign an MoU to collaborate and to provide a knowledge platform for the horticultural industry in Asia.
15 November 2017 – Bangkok, Thailand & Leuven, Belgium
The keynote speakers for the S33 - Water and Nutrient Relations and Management of Horticultural Crops meanwhile kindly accepted to provide inspiring overviews and to date >60 abstracts have been submitted from colleagues already.
We are looking forward to several days filled with latest advances in water and nutrition topics.
Check out the new issue of eJHS online at http://www.pubhort.org/ejhs/ (Volume 82, issue 5, October 2017) - Thematic Issue: Apple Production - including the following articles:
Dear members of the Working Group,
It is my pleasure to inform you that I was elected as the next Chairman of the ISHS Chestnut Working Group, succeeding Prof. Umit Serdar on this grateful task.
First of all, I want to thank Prof. Umit Serdar for all he did to push this WG forward and for the great organization of the VI International Symposium on Chestnut which was very fruitful.
Check out the ISHS Commission Fruits and Vegetables and Health newsletter, October 2017
For more details see the commission web page at http://www.ishs.org/fruits-and-vegetables-and-health
Dear members of the ISHS Working Groups Hydroponics and Aquaponics,
As many of you may know, Erik van Os completed his term as the Chair of the ISHS Working Group Hydroponics.
Simultaneously, Tycho Vermeulen informed us that he will not be able to continue serving as the Chair of the ISHS Working Group Aquaponics.
Please let me take this opportunity to thank both of them for serving us in such a productive manner.
Chronica Horticulturae Volume 57 Number 3 (September 2017) is available for download - proceed to http://www.ishs.org/chronica-horticulturae/vol57nr3 and login with your ISHS membership account credentials.
Topics in this number include
News & Views from the Board
Check out the new issue of Fruits - The International Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Horticulture online at http://www.pubhort.org/fruits/ (Volume 72, issue 5, September/October 2017).
Lili Yang is a doctoral student at the Northwest A & F University in China. Her major is plant nutrition and her research is focused mainly on fruit nutrition management, especially of kiwifruit.
European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) is an economically and nutritionally important nut crop with wild and cultivated populations found throughout Europe and in parts of Asia. Turkey is the world's main hazelnut producer with 450,000 tons grown on 701,141 ha, accounting for 65% of world production.
Check out the new issue of eJHS online at http://www.pubhort.org/ejhs/ (Volume 82, issue 4, August 2017) - Thematic Issue: Berryfruit - including the following articles:
Check out the new issue of Fruits - The International Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Horticulture online at http://www.pubhort.org/fruits/ (Volume 72, issue 4, July/August 2017).
India contributes 69% of global mango production. However, availability of fruit in India meets only 50% of demand. In order to overcome the problems of post-production losses, several strategies, such as the best harvesting and handling practices, are being promoted. However, the recommended practices are not being adopted because of practical difficulties. This situation requires a simple and practical solution to a challenging problem.
The use of artificial light has become very common as a means to increase production and quality of seedlings. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are a new source of economical and spectrally-selective light. The benefits are: versatility in handling and mounting, long life expectancy, wattage use efficiency and lower heat production.
This project investigated the effects that different rates of nitrogen fertigation had on red drupelet disorder expression in commercial blackberries. Red drupelet disorder (sometimes known as red drupelet reversion or reddening) is a postharvest physiological disorder that causes fruit, which is black at harvest, to revert to a red colour following cold storage. This causes a mottled appearance on the fruit that is off-putting to the consumer and can render fruit unmarketable in some cases, causing significant financial loss to producers.
Morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular changes occur during the in vitro tissue culture process of plants. It is hypothesised that the tissue culture process restores juvenile characteristics to explants obtained from physiologically mature mother-plants. Also, restoration of juvenile characters in mature mother plants is believed to be helpful for in vitro regeneration, especially for recalcitrant woody perennials. However, the above hypothesis has not been tested using molecular biological techniques.
Consumption of African leafy vegetables (ALVs) has increased in Kenya, especially within urban and peri-urban areas. ALVs, such as vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L.), are rich in bioactive compounds, e.g. protein, minerals, vitamins, dietary fiber, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, which play an important role in health promotion. However, ALVs are highly perishable; hence they suffer significant postharvest losses. The use of ultraviolet light C (UV-C) is gaining interest in improving postharvest quality and hygienic status of fruits and vegetables.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of sequencing technology and in silico polymorphism analysis to increase the efficiency of development of polymorphic SSR markers in papaya. We performed whole-genome re-sequencing on two commercial cultivars of papaya, 'Sunrise Solo' (Hawaiian cultivar) and 'RB2' (Australian cultivar), to identify a range of polymorphic sites to facilitate marker-assisted breeding programs for improving fruit quality traits.