Breeding of German chamomile, Matricaria recutita L., with a high content of α-bisabolol
German chamomile, Matricaria recutita L., is characterized by considerable variability of the amount of biologically active compounds in essential oil, such as α-bisabolol oxide A, α-bisabolol oxide B, α-bisabolol, spiro keto-enol ethers and chamazulene. There are several distinct chemotypes of chamomile. α-bisabolol and chamazulene are considered to be the most valuable components of the essential oil. The recent breeding of diploid forms is aimed at a high content of these components and low contents of α-bisabolol oxides A and B. The emphasis is put on a high yield in flower inflorescences as well as the uniformity and stability of the morphological characteristics of the plant. The methods of individual plant selection and the middle seedbed are used in our breeding practice. The content of essential oil of the new cultivar of chamomile 'Lianka', which was bred in recent years, is 0.70%. The compounds α-bisabolol and chamazulene accounted for more than 55 and 16%, respectively, of the essential oil content, while that of α-bisabolol oxides A and B were 1.6 and 2.3%, respectively. The essential oils were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS.
Fejer, J. and Salamon, I. (2016). Breeding of German chamomile, Matricaria recutita L., with a high content of α-bisabolol. Acta Hortic. 1125, 287-292
chamomile, chemotype, diploid, qualitative characterization, quantitative analysis, selection