HIGH DENSITY PLANTING IN FRENCH ORCHARDS: DEVELOPMENT AND CURRENT ACHIEVEMENTS
The discussions and controversies between orchard management specialists and between growers about planting distances and tree training systems for a given fruit species undoubtedly began with the first orchard; they will last as long as fruit trees are planted. Many factors indeed interfere in this field. Some of them are related to environment: quality of soil, water supply and other climatic factors such as temperature or light. The nature of the plant material is also important, particularly vigour of the rootstock, growth habit and vigour of the cultivar, but the influence of economic factors in the choice of planting distances and tree training systems are more and more determinant and it is necessary to include in these factors the orchard equipment and harvesting system which play a major role in the assessment of labour needs.
Hugard, J. (1981). HIGH DENSITY PLANTING IN FRENCH ORCHARDS: DEVELOPMENT AND CURRENT ACHIEVEMENTS. Acta Hortic. 114, 300-308