Evaluation of fig germplasm against insect and mite pests in North-West India
Fig, Ficus carica L. is one of the oldest cultivated crops and is a typical Mediterranean fruit species, widely spread in Near Eastern, African, and South European countries. In India, fig is considered as a minor commercial fruit, probably because its production cannot compete with other commercial fruit crops. To explore the possibilities of its cultivation in the Indian Punjab, eleven fig cultivars viz. 'Black Fig', 'Brown Turkey', 'Conadria', 'Diana', 'Dinkar', 'Excel', 'Ishia White', 'Panachee', 'Poona', 'RSSB' and 'Texas' were introduced from Indian and exotic sources and were planted in the college orchard of Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India. The germplasm was evaluated for their tolerances against insect and mite pests during 2012-2014. Major insect-pests observed were fig leaf roller, Phycodes minor Moore and P. radiata Ochsenheimer, fig borer, Batocera rufomaculata DeGeer and B. rubus (Linnaeus), hairy caterpillars, Euproctis lunata Walker and Spilaractia obliqua (Walker), fruit flies, Bactrocera dorsalis and B. zonata, fig wasp, Blastophaga sp., cottony cushion scale, Icerya sp., aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover and two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch. The highest number of fig leaf roller larvae 10 leaves-1 plant-1 was observed in 'Conadria' (30 larvae), while the lowest number of larvae was observed in 'Brown Turkey' (12 larvae). 'Poona' was the most susceptible for fig borer damage (10 holes plant-1), while 'Brown Turkey' had the least infestation (3 holes plant-1). Highest number of hairy caterpillars 10 leaves-1 was observed in 'Poona' (15) and 'Texas' (12), while minimum number of larvae was seen in 'Brown Turkey' (4). Damage on fruits due to fruit flies was recorded the highest on LSQUOTexas' (10% damaged fruits) while 'Brown Turkey' recorded the lowest damage (5%). Highest number of cottony cushion scales 10 leaves-1 were observed in 'Texas' (4 scales), while minimum number of scales were recorded on 'Brown Turkey' (2 scales 10 leaves-1). The highest infestation of aphids was observed on leaves of 'Texas' (55 nymphs 5 leaves-1) while 'Brown Turkey' recorded the lowest infestation (15 nymphs 5 leaves-1). Maximum percentage infested leaves due to mite was observed in LSQUOTexasRSQUO (45.5%), while minimum percentage infested leaves was observed in LSQUOBrown TurkeyRSQUO (12.2%). The Highest number of fig wasps were recovered from fruits of LSQUOTexasRSQUO (80 fruit-1) and LSQUOExcelRSQUO (75 fruit-1) while fruits of LSQUOBrown TurkeyRSQUO harboured the lowest number of wasps (30 fruit-1). The evaluation of different cultivars revealed that plants of LSQUOBrown TurkeyRSQUO cultivar harboured the lowest population of all the insects and mite pests.
Singh, S. and Kaur, G. (2017). Evaluation of fig germplasm against insect and mite pests in North-West India. Acta Hortic. 1173, 245-250
fig, germplasm evaluation, fig leaf roller, fig borer, hairy caterpillars, fruit flies, cottony cushion scale, aphid, fig wasp, two-spotted spider mite