Hazelnut production in Turkey: current situation, problems and future prospects
Turkey is a major hazelnut producer supplying approximately 75% of the world production. Hazelnuts have been economically grown in 14 provinces having a temperate maritime climate provided by the Black Sea. Most orchards are on slopes and shallow soils. In 2015, the production area was enlarged by the addition of two more provinces (Bolu and Tokat) by a regulation. Within the last 10 years (2006-2016), the planting area increased by 6.3% and reached 705,445 ha. The average production was 558,579 t but it showed large variations (420,000-800,791 t). Fluctuating annual production caused by late spring frost and other climatic events gave rise to sharp increases in domestic and international hazelnut prices. Approximately 15-20% of the crop is consumed domestically and the rest is exported while excessive amounts in large crop years are stocked the following year. Some of the crop is processed for oil for consumption. The production is supplied by 18 cultivars of which Tombul, Palaz, Foşa and Çakıldak are the most important. Two new cultivars (Okay-28 and Giresun Melezi) and selection Allahverdi were released recently although they are not in production yet. Drying nuts using machines is a recent development in the industry but it is not widely used. Long-standing problems such as small farm size, aged plants/orchards, dense planting distances and inadequate cultural practices continue to affect the productivity. The cost of labor for harvest is high and continues to increase. Powdery mildew disease caused by Erysiphe corylacearum was first reported in 2013 in Eastern Black Sea region. Within two years it had spread to the Western Black Sea region. Now, extension studies are being carried out to provide growers with guidelines for disease management.
Erdogan, V. (2018). Hazelnut production in Turkey: current situation, problems and future prospects. Acta Hortic. 1226, 13-24
cultivars, spring frosts, drying machine, powdery mildew, export, Black Sea