World hazelnut trade networks
This study was conducted to reveal the social network of world hazelnut trade and to make a general evaluation about hazelnut trade. In the research, the current situation of hazelnut trade in the world, potential of development and shares of countries are examined. The data on countries exporting and importing hazelnut were obtained from the International Trade Centre (ITC) databases and a hazelnut trade network was established, visualized and analysed by social network analysis. An average of 2.3 billion $ hazelnut exports a year worldwide. The most important hazelnut exporter countries are Turkey (70.2%), Italy (8.7%), Georgia (7.4%), Azerbaijan (3.9%) and Germany (2.5%). The most important hazelnut importing countries are Germany (30.6%), Italy (18.6%), France (10.2%), Canada (5.1%) and Switzerland (5.0%). Between 2011 and 2015, world hazelnut exports have grown by an average of 14%. The growth in export figures of Turkey, Spain, and Germany was realized below the world average. However, in recent years it has been determined that the growth in exports of Chile (88%), USA (25%), The Netherlands (24%), Italy (21%) and Georgia (16%) is above the world average. When the social networks of world hazelnut trade are examined, hazelnut trade is seen in 80 countries. Turkey, Italy, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Germany, The Netherlands, and Chile are the most important countries in terms of export quantity while Turkey, Spain, Georgia, Germany, Italy and The Netherlands are the most exporting countries respectively. 60.6% of the hazelnuts exported from Turkey are exported to European countries. These countries are Italy (30.5%), France (11.9%), Germany (11.7%) and Poland (6.5%) respectively. It is estimated that Turkeys hazelnut trade and current market structure will be adversely affected by the growth of the hazelnut export in Chile, USA, The Netherlands, Italy, Azerbaijan and Georgia and these are examined together with the decreased rates of Turkey in hazelnut exports. In the next years, Turkey will face serious competitors in the American continent (Chile and the USA), Europe (The Netherlands and Italy), and the Asian market (Georgia and Azerbaijan).
Aydoğan, M., Demiryürek, K. and Abacı, N.İ. (2018). World hazelnut trade networks. Acta Hortic. 1226, 429-436
hazelnut, export, import, social network analysis