Anthocyanin profiles among Rubus species

P. Perkins-Veazie, G. Ma, G. Fernandez, B. Haynes, C. Ochsenfeld, A. Fister, L. Redpath, R. Rapp
Rubus species and hybrids grown in Watsonville, CA, including blackberry, yellow, purple, red, and black raspberry, were analyzed for anthocyanin profiles using high performance liquid chromatography. Anthocyanins were identified for the first time for at least 20 Rubus species. The most common anthocyanin found in all Rubus samples was cyanidin 3-rutinoside (C3R), followed by cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3G). C3G was highest proportionally in blackberries, compared to those with raspberry or black raspberry profiles. Although Rubus species are distinctive in containing mostly cyanidin-type anthocyanins, pelargonidin 3-glucoside (Pg3G) was also detected in some species. Total anthocyanin was very low in species with yellow, orange-fruited, or light red fruit and was mostly C3R. The black raspberry species R. occidentalis and R. leucodermis had the highest total anthocyanin content (GROTERDAN1000 mg 100 g‑1 fwt) of all samples. Raspberries (yellow, red, purple) could be distinguished from blackberries by the presence of cyanidin 3-sophoroside (C3So) and cyanidin 3-(2G)-glucosylrutinoside (C3GR), and from black raspberries by the presence of pelargonidin-3-sophoroside (Pg3So). Black and purple raspberries contained cyanidin 3-(2G)-xylosylrutinoside (C3XR). Cyanidin 3-sambubioside (C3Sam) was present in red, black, and purple raspberries but varied in presence and amount with the cultivar. The hybrids of raspberry and blackberry could have raspberry-like (C3So or C3GR) or blackberry-like (C3X) patterns.
Perkins-Veazie, P., Ma, G., Fernandez, G., Haynes, B., Ochsenfeld, C., Fister, A., Redpath, L. and Rapp, R. (2024). Anthocyanin profiles among Rubus species. Acta Hortic. 1388, 405-411
DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2024.1388.59
blackberry, raspberry, black raspberry, purple raspberry, Rubus hybrid

Acta Horticulturae