HAZELNUT CULTURE IN POLAND - THE PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE IN OUTLINE

Z. Piskornik
Hazelnuts have been cultivated in Poland for a long time and their planting was recommended in various gardening annuals as early as the first half of XIX century, e.g. in "Common gardening" by Czepinski, published in Warsaw in 1841. At that time hazelnuts were planted exclusively in private gardens and parks. Some interest in the selection of cultivars arose only after Franz Goeschke's monograph "Die Haselnuss" appeared in 1887. The first polish handbook on hazelnut cultivation was published in 1938 by Kornel Maurer, who after the II World War became a well-known pomologist at the Institute of Pomology in Geisenheim, Germany.

Cultivation of hazelnut in Poland gained more interest in the 50s and 60s thanks to the many year long activity of Franciszek Goc, who in 1957 published a comprehensive handbook "Hazelnut culture" and founded the still existing Experimental Hazelnut Breeding Station in Cracow. At that time hazelnut plantations were also established at the Experimental Pomological Station at Lipowa and in some experimental farms belonging to the Institute of Pomology at Skierniewice. Investigations to find out whether hazelnut production in Poland would be profitable were also undertaken at that time. Important data were obtained from an 11 year study on hazelnut yield in our conditions carried out by the Experimental Pomological Station at Lipowa. The results are shown in Table 1.

The hazelnut yield value in this experiment was relatively high but varied in particular years within a wide range from very low in 1966 and 1969 to high in 1972 and 1976. These great fluctuations in hazelnut yield mainly result from the climatic conditions. The weather in Poland is defined as very changeable, this being due, on the one hand, to the influence of the marine, and on the other, of continental climate. Southern Poland has a somewhat milder climate than the northern part of the country and favours hazelnut cultivation. The average values of climatic factors in the southern and northern parts of Poland are shown in Table 2.

Piskornik, Z. (1994). HAZELNUT CULTURE IN POLAND - THE PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE IN OUTLINE. Acta Hortic. 351, 49-54
DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.1994.351.3
https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1994.351.3

Acta Horticulturae