FLUCTUATIONS OF ENDOGENOUS GIBBERELLIN A4 AND A7 CONTENT IN APPLE FRUITS WITH DIFFERENT SENSITIVITY TO RUSSET
Skin russet of Golden Delicious apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) is the result of an interaction between an epidermal structure, more or less sensitive to the disorder, which is the predisposing cause, and external environmental factors, such as high relative humidity, rain, low temperature, or some pesticide treatments. However, treatments with GA4 or GA4+7 in the first period of fruit development reduce russeting. Trees of four Golden Delicious clones (Clone B, Smoothee, Crielaard, and Reinders) with different sensitivity to russeting were covered, in order to protect the fruitlets from russeting factors, for 1 week in weeks 2 to 8 after full bloom, or for the whole period, or kept uncovered as a control. Russeting was checked at harvest. The trial confirmed that the period of maximum sensitivity to russeting lies between the second and the fourth week after full bloom, when the fruit diameter is in the range between 15 to 30 mm. Gibberellin concentration was analyzed in uncovered fruitlets picked in the period of maximum sensitivity to russeting. In that period, fruits of the more sensitive clones showed a higher GA7 amount and a lower GA4 amount than fruits of less sensitive clones, where GA4 was predominant. Similar results were obtained analyzing the gibberellin concentration, during the same stage of development, in a completely russeted cultivar (Reinette Grise) and in a cultivar that never shows russeting (Rosmarina Bianca). Therefore, the resistance to russeting seems to be related to a high ratio of endogenous GA4/GA7 during the period of maximum sensitivity.
Eccher, T. and Hajnajari, H. (2006). FLUCTUATIONS OF ENDOGENOUS GIBBERELLIN A4 AND A7 CONTENT IN APPLE FRUITS WITH DIFFERENT SENSITIVITY TO RUSSET. Acta Hortic. 727, 537-544
endogenous gibberellins, apple, fruit russet, Malus domestica Borkh